Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers in all areas including metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, electrical materials, composite materials, fibers, all engineering materials, nanostructured materials, nanocomposites, and biological and biomedical materials. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews en-US Journal of Materials Science Research and Reviews Dimensional Stability of Cement Bonded Boards Produced from Thaumatococus danielli Stalk <p>Cement bonded boards 6 mm thick were produced using <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii </em>stalk. <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii </em>and cement were mixed together at two different mixing ratios and three board densities of 2.5:1 and 3:1 and 500, 600 and 700 g/cm<sup>3</sup>, respectively. After 24 h of cold-water immersion, the mean water absorption of the cement bonded board ranged from 22.9 to 48.5% for (cement/stalk) mixing ratio of 3:1 and 2.5:1 with board density 700 and 500 g/m<sup>3 </sup>respectively. Cement bonded board produced from the highest levels of cement: stalk ratio (3:1) and board density (700 g/cm<sup>3</sup>) were dimensional more stable as they had the lowest value for water absorption. The least dimensionally stable boards were produced from the mixing ratio cement: stalk ratio (2.5:1) and board density (500 g/m<sup>3</sup>). The mean values obtained for thickness swelling (TS) after 24 hours of cold-water immersion ranged from 0.19 to 0.74%. Result shows that the higher the increase in mixing ratio of cements to fibre (3:1) and board density (700 g/cm<sup>3</sup>) caused decrease in thickness swelling and water absorption. From this study, <em>Thaumatococcus daniellii </em>stalk proved to be suitable for the production of cement–bonded board.</p> E. A. Adelusi S. A. Adedokun F. T. Adelusi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-04 2019-10-04 1 7 Eco-dyeing of Wool Fabrics with Natural Dye Extracted from Leaves of Neem <p>More powerful of extraction natural dye from Neem leaves (<em>Azadirachta </em>indica) with respect to different dye bath concentrations in the range 20-80 g/L on wool fabrics was the aim of the present work. Also, the effect of artificial daylight up to 160 hours on the wool fabrics was evaluated. The optical properties of the blank and dyed unexposed and exposed fabrics were determined using the spectrophotometric technique. From the obtained reflectance spectra, the CIE tristimulus values, the color parameters, the absorption coefficient, optical band gap energy, extinction coefficient and color strength were calculated as well as the washing fastness of the fabrics was tested. The results noted that wool fabrics were depended on both the dyeing concentration and the exposure to artificial daylight. The locations of blank and Neem dyed wool fabrics unexposed and exposed on the chromaticity diagram were different and confirmed the change in the spectral colors of the fabrics. The obtained changes in the values of the optical parameters may be attributed to the induced change in the molecular configuration and variations in the chemical bonds in the wool fabrics. Also, the results obtained indicate that the natural dye extracted from Neem leaves has good potential in textiles dyeing. Also, excellent colorfastness properties were obtained indicated that the dyed wool fabrics have good washing fastness properties.</p> Nabawia A. Abdel-Zaher Manal T. H. Moselhey Osiris W. Guirguis ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-10-23 2019-10-23 1 14 Hybrid Thermosetting Composite of Kenaf/Banana Fibres for Utilisation in a Passenger Car Bumper <p>Due to the high performance material requirement for automotive application and impact sensitivity of car bumper as one of the main car parts used as protection for passengers from collision and the safety requirement of the material to improve crashworthiness during low impact collision was the essence of composite material hybridisation. Thermosetting hybrid kenaf/banana composites were fabricated after chemical modification of fibres. hand-lay up contact molding techniques were used for material fabrication. Fibre loading were set at 50% weight of the matrix with the hybrid materials at 1:1 ratio of short non-woven randomly oriented fibres, The catalyst and accelerator was added 2-3% by weight of the matrix.&nbsp; Hybrid material were hand-laid in the mold and the matrix were gradually applied to the fibre network in the precision, coverage and dimension of the mold. The fabricated materials were left to cure at ambient temperature for 24hrs. The tensile and flexural tests were carried out using Testometric testing machine, Model M500-25KN. In accordance to ASTM D638-90 and ASTM D790-90 respectively. The results showed improved mechanical properties for hybrid kenaf/banana composite than composite of kenaf and banana fibres reinforcement. Hybrid kenaf/banana composite (HK/B-C) at 50% fibre optimum loading shows improvement on mechanical properties of the composite than that of kenaf composite (K-C) and banana composite (B-C) respectively . Hybrid materials are being developed and design aiming to improve mechanical behaviour and application performance polymeric materials.</p> E. U. Akubueze F. C. Nwaeche O. S. Muniru C. S. Ezeanyanaso I. O. Nwaze G. O. Nwauzor O. Mafe C. C. Okeke A. A. Afolabi C. C. Igwe ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-07 2019-11-07 1 6 Kinetics and Thermodynamic Studies of Beta Carotene Extraction from Palm Oil by Solvent Extraction <p>This study evaluated the kinetics and thermodynamics of the extraction of beta-carotene from palm oil using acetone and ethanol. Six kinetics models which include; first order, second order, pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intra-particle diffusion model and power law model were used for the study. Pseudo-second order was found to fit the experimental data better than the rest of the models with correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of above 0.99. The thermodynamics study of the process was done at the temperature of 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C. From the result of the parameters, it was discovered that the process was endothermic, non-spontaneous and randomized (disorderly).</p> Samuel O. Egbuna Donatus C. Onwubiko Christian O. Asadu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-11 2019-11-11 1 13